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Analysis on influenza vaccination status and influencing factors in medical workers in Chongqing
Lin Gan, Yu Xiong, Qin Li, Tao Chen, Xiaojun Tang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the status of influenza vaccination in medical workers in Chongqing, and identify the influencing factors.MethodsA total of 1412 medical workers in 8 hospitals were investigated by stratified cluster random sampling, and univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted by χ2 test and Logistic regression model.ResultsThe influenza vaccination rate was 16.78% in medical staff in Chongqing from 2018 to 2019. The vaccination rate was higher in medical workers in influenza like illness related departments (22.61%) than in other departments (12.12%) (OR=2.030, 95% CI: 1.512–2.734). The influenza vaccination rate was 18.14% in those who has worked for 6–10 years (OR=1.504, 95% CI: 1.056–2.150), 21.29% in those who had worked for 11–15 years (OR=1.821, 95% CI: 1.182–2.783), and 19.74% in those who had worked for ≥ 16 years (OR=1.874, 95% CI: 1.229–2.840), all higher than that in those who had worked for ≤5 years.ConclusionThe rate of influenza vaccination in medical workers in Chongqing was low, and lack of time was the main reason to hinder the vaccination. Working in influenza like illness department or not and working years were the main influencing factors for influenza vaccination in medical workers
Evaluation of implementation of “Diagnostic Criteria of Dengue Fever* (WS 216-2018)
Min Luo, Yao Yi, Yingtao Zhang, Fan He, Xi Chen, Min Kang, Tie Song
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the implementation of Diagnostic Criteria of Dengue Fever (WS 216-2018) and provide reference for the revision and better application of the criteria.MethodsUsing stratified random sampling, general hospitals, community health service centers, centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) and customs in Guangdong, Zhejiang and Chongqing were selected to conduct questionnaire survey and field investigation. EpiData 3.1 was used to establish a database, and SPSS 22.0 was used for statistical analysis. Inter group differences were compared with χ2 test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H test.ResultsA total of 61 medical institutions were surveyed, and 637 questionnaires were collected, in which 443 were from Guangdong (69.54%), 102 from Chongqing (16.01%) and 92 from Zhejiang (14.44%). The institutions were mainly general hospitals (86.66%) and the medical and health institutions at district or county level accounted for 56.51%. The total mastery rate of the criteria was 67.66%. The mastery rate in Guangdong (69.31%) was higher than that in Chongqing (66.36%) and Zhejiang (61.14%), and the mastery rate in general hospitals (67.02%) was lower than that in community health service centers (69.05%) and CDCs (74.43%). The awareness rate of the criteria through training was highest, reaching 76.61%. In clinicians surveyed, 25.84% used the criteria all the time, 28.50% often used it, 33.63% used it occasionally and 12.03% never used it. There were 73.45% and 64.25% of clinicians who could answer the questions about the tests to be conducted for suspected cases within five days and within seven days after onset. Only 42.48% of clinicians knew the dengue diagnostic tests to be provided in their hospitals. 96.55% of general hospitals could provide NS1 screening for dengue virus antigen. In the community health service centers surveyed, 87.50% in Guangdong could carry out NS1 screening, 2 in Zhejiang could provide NS1 screening, and all in Chongqing could not provide NS1 screening. Three CDCs surveyed in Chongqing and Zhejiang were all able to conduct nucleic acid testing for dengue virus. Among the 12 CDCs surveyed in Guangdong, 58.33% (7/12) were allowed to conduct nucleic acid testing, and the CDCs in non-Pearl River Delta area could not provide nucleic acid testing. In the process of implementation of the criteria, a good consistency was found in relevant regulation documents.ConclusionThe mastery rate and use rate of the criteria were low in clinicians, it is necessary to further strengthen the training for the use promotion of the criteria.
Antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza B virus/Victoria lineage in Shanghai, 2018–2020
Xue Zhao, Zheng Teng, Fanghao Fang, Fang Yuan, Chenyan Jiang, Zhengan Yuan, Xi Zhang
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Objective To analyze the antigenic and genetic characteristics and variation of influenza B virus /Victoria lineage in Shanghai during 2018–2020. Methods Hemagglutinin inhibition test was performed to analyze the antigenicity of 142 strains of influenza B virus/Victoria lineage isolated in Shanghai from April 2018 to March 2020, in which 63 strains were used for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequencing and analysis. Results V1A.3 was predominant clade in influenza B virus B/Victoria lineage circulating in Shanghai. A few circulating strains belonged to clade V1A.1 and clade V1A without deletion. Only 26.76% of the circulating virus strains were antigenically similar to the B/Colorado/06/2017 vaccine strain. Five amino acids loci had mutation in the HA protein sequence of clade V1A.3 compared with the B/Colorado/06/2017 vaccine strain, involving 4 important epitopes and receptors, such as 120 loop, 150 loop, 160 loop and 190 helix. Conclusion The majority of influenza B virus /Victoria lineage circulating in Shanghai did not match well with the vaccine strain B/Colorado/06/2017 recommended by WHO. It is necessary to further strengthen the surveillance for influenza virus variation to provide reliable data for the screening of influenza vaccine strain.
Analysis on genetic characteristics of Arcobacter skirrowii based on whole genome sequence
Guilan Zhou, Yuanyuan Wang, Yixin Gu, Ying Li, Changyan Ju, Jiaqi Wang, Hairui Wang, Xiaoli Chen, Yongxiang Duan, Maojun Zhang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the genetic characteristics of Arcobacter skirrowii from different sources and hosts and analyze their antibiotic resistance and virulence associated genes.MethodsBioinformatics software was used for the comparative analysis on the whole genome sequences of 8 A. skirrowii strains isolated in our laboratory and the whole genome sequences of 15 A. skirrowii strains from NCBI and PATRIC database.ResultsblaOXA-464 was the only identified antibiotic resistance gene in 3 A. skirrowii strains. All the strains contained immune invasion, evasion and motility-related virulence genes. Compared with the 10 virulence genes identified in other Arcobacter, the virulence genes, ciaB, tlyA, cj1349, pldA and mviN were found in all of the tested strains. iroE was identified only in two strains (CNAS12-1 and F28), no other 4 virulence genes were found. Type VI secretion system (T6SS) gene cluster was found in 21.7% (5/23) of the tested strains, which had differed genetic constitution and arrange compared with T6SS of other Arcobacter.ConclusionA. skirrowii showed high genetic diversity, and some strains might have potential drug resistance and pathogenic characteristics.
Analysis on factors influencing neurological outcome in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury
Jiaojiao Zhang, Xiao Qi, Hongyan Yao, Shicheng Yu, Liang Yan, Jianjun Liu
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Objective To analyze the factors affecting the neurological outcome of inpatients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in different hospitals, and explore the future prevention and treatment of TSCI. Methods Multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to extract the medical record information of TSCI patients hospitalized in 69 grade Ⅲ hospitals from January 1 to December 31, 2018. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test was used to analyze the changes in injury grade of TSCI patients at discharge and admission according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) injury classification; the two-level logistic random intercept model was used to analyze the influencing factorls of the changes in injury grade of TSCI patients according to ASIA injury classification in different hospitals. Results Among the 4404 TSCI patients, 1200 were in recovery group, accounting for 27.25%, and the difference in injury grade distribution at discharge and admission was significant. In the total variation of ASIA injury grade change, 24.12% was caused by hospital-level differences. In multivariate analysis, the grading improvement rate decreased by 0.90% for one-year increase of age; Compared with the lumbosacral segment, The grading improvement rates in the chest and neck segments were reduced by 28.90% and 21.50%, respectively. The grading improvement rate in patients with complete injury was 29.00% lower than that in patients with incomplete injury; The grading improvement rate in patients with fracture and dislocation was 33.50% lower than that in patients without these conditions; The grading improvement rate in patients with interval between injury and operation ≤3 days was 0.353 times higher than that in patients with the interval >3 days; The grading improvement rate in patients with rehabilitation training increased by 1.069 times; Compared with patients without surgery, the grading improvement rate in patients with decompression fixation increased by 1.565 times, and the rate in those with decompression fixation and fusion increased by 1.139 times. Conclusion The effect of TSCI inpatient treatment was poor; the differences in age, injury and treatment characteristics at different hospital levels were all related to the prognosis of TSCI, indicating that it is urgent to develop precise TSCI prevention strategies and establish a regional integration of “emergency-treatment-rehabilitation” platform.
Survival potential and infectiousness of 2019 novel coronavirus in environment
Yuyuan Huang, Sihui Zhang, Juan Zhou, Wentao Zhu, Qianni Huang, Jing Yang, Jianguo Xu
Accepted Manuscript
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly and widely in the world, which is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated media. In this study, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was found to have a similar stability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) by analyzing its survival time on different subject surfaces and main influencing factors in related research. 2019-nCoV can survive for several days at various subject surfaces or media at room temperature (stainless steel: 2 days, plastic: 3 days, glass: 4 days, etc.), and 2019-nCoV can persist for longer time at low temperature and low relative humidity, which has caused severe threat to public health and has posed severe challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19. According to available data, 2019-nCoV has the characteristics of high infectiousness and high covertness, similar to influenza A virus. By understanding the survival potential and infectiousness of 2019-nCoV in environment, targeted disinfection and effective protection can be implemented to reduce the incidence of COVID-19.
Correlation between seasonal influenza and meteorological factors: a systematic review
Qian Guo, Tao Chen, Luojing Zhou
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo explore the correlation between seasonal influenza activity level and meteorological factors.MethodsA literature retrieval of papers about influenza activity and meteorological factors published by May 2019 in English electronic databases, such as Pubmed, Cochrane Library, OVID, EBSCO and Web of Science, was conducted. A total of 45 qualified literatures were included, including laboratory and epidemiological surveys. Research sites of epidemiological studies were stratified according to different climatic regions, and basic information, meteorological factors and statistical methods of the included literatures were extracted, classified and analyzed.ResultsMost epidemiological studies used some type of regression analysis. Influenza activity in temperate region was significantly associated with low temperature and low humidity. The correlation between influenza activity and temperature or humidity in subtropical and tropical regions were complex and inconsistent, and rainfall might increase the level of influenza activity in tropical region.ConclusionEnvironmental factors, such as cold and dry climate in temperate region and humid and rainy climate in tropical region, are closely related to influenza activity, but the information about the influence of meteorological factors, such as solar radiation, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure, on influenza activity is still limited.
Analysis on identification of Shewanella at species level based on16S rRNA and gyrB genes
Hongyan Cai, Yujie Fang, Keyi Yu, Zhenzhou Huang, Hang Dai, Duochun Wang
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Objective To establish an assay for the identification of Shewanella based on 16S rRNA and gyrB genes and compare the identification power of two genes. Methods Software DnaSP 6.0 was used to analyze the number and percentage of information bits, the nucleotide polymorphism, average G+C content, the ratio of non-synonymous mutation rate to synonymous mutation rate (Ka/Ks) and the Tajima test was used for 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of 54 Shewanella strains. Adjacency distance matrix method of software MEGA 6.06 was used to construct the phylogenetic tree 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of 90 tested strains and 54 model strains. The kimura’s 2-parameter model of MEGA 6.06 software was used to identify the species of 90 tested strains, then the genetic distance and sequence similarity of 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were calculated. The difference of identification power for the two species was compared. Results The 16S rRNA sequences of Shewanella strains had a similarity range of 89.8%–100% (average 95.0%) and gyrB sequence similarity range was 73.2%–99.9% (average 80.8%). In the phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene, S. marinintestina and S. sairae, S. livingstonensis and S. vesiculosa, showed almost identical evolutionary branches, but the gyrB gene could distinguish all strains at species level. 16S rRNA had a small range in intraspecific and interspecific similarities. Conclusion Compared with 16S rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree of gyrB gene can identify Shewanella at species level more accurately.
Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in Guangzhou, 2005–2018
Yong Huang, Wen Wang, Chunhuan Zhang, Jianxiong Xu, Zhoubin Zhang
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics and trend of hepatitis B in Guangzhou during 2005–2018, and provide evidence for the effective prevention and control of hepatitis B.MethodsThe hepatitis B surveillance data in Guangzhou during the period were analyzed using descriptive epidemiological methods.ResultsFrom 2005 to 2018, a total of 285 648 hepatitis B cases were reported, and the annual incidence rate was 166.81/100 000. The annual average reported incidence rate of acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis B were 6.68/100 000 and 145.43/100 000, respectively. The incidence rate of hepatitis B in some non-central areas (Zengcheng, Conghua and Nansha) increased during 2012–2018 compared with that during 2005–2011. Acute hepatitis B mainly occurred in age group 15–44 years, while the chronic hepatitis B mainly occurred in age group >30 years. The reported incidence of chronic hepatitis B in age group >45 years was higher during 2012–2018 than during 2005–2011, but the reported incidence rate in other age groups decreased with varying degrees. The incidence rate was higher in men than in women.ConclusionIt is necessary to pay attention to the epidemiological characteristics and trend of hepatitis B, strengthen the prevention and control of hepatitis B in adults, especially the high-risk groups, and accelerate the elimination process of viral hepatitis.
Study of R0 of COVID-19 and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 based on systematic review
Jiamin Chen, Zengzhao Qiu, Shuyi Zhong, Simin Wen, Yuelong Shu
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveThe compare transmission efficiency of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 by a systematic review based on R0 calculation.MethodsWe conducted a literature retrieval by using the databases of CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, BioRxiv and MedRxiv for the research of COVID-19 and influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. Two reviewers independently screened the literatures, extracted and calculated related data and systematically compared the R0 of the two outbreaks.ResultsA total of 164 papers were included (54 about influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 110 about COVID-19). The median R0 of COVID-19 [2.860 (IQR: 2.350−3.560)] was higher than that of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 [1.508 (IQR: 1.336−1.836)] in the world. In China, the median R0 of COVID-19 was 2.930 (IQR: 2.215–3.453) and the median R0 of COVID-19 before the lockdown of Wuhan [3.430 (IQR: 2.500−4.710)] was higher than that after the lockdown of Wuhan [2.500 (IQR: 1.673−3.030)].ConclusionThe transmission efficiency of COVID-19 is stronger than influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. The spread of COVID-19 in China has been controlled owe to the strict “lockdown” strategy.
Surveillance for echinococcosis in Pengyang county of Ningxia Hui autonomous region, 2011–2018
Qirong Liu, Xianglin Wu, Rong Wen
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Objective To understand the changes of the surveillance data of echinococcosis in Pengyang county of Ningxia from 2011 to 2018 and evaluate the effects of integrated control measures. Methods The surveillance data of echinococcosis in population, domestic dogs, cattle and sheep in Pengyang during this period were recorded in the database. SPSS software was used for the data analysis and comparison. Results During this period, a total of 38 924 people were screened, in whom 91 echinococcosis patients were found, the prevalence rate was 0.23%, and the prevalence rate decreased year by year (trend χ2=72.680, P<0.05). A total of 8 352 blood samples of children aged 6–12 years were detected, in which 420 were seropositive, the infection rate in children was 5.03%, and the infection rate decreased year by year (trendχ2=11.537, P<0.05). A total of 6 246 stool samples of domestic dogs were detected, in which 110 were positive, the infection rate in dogs was 1.76%, and the infection rate decreased year by year (trendχ2=8.729, P<0.05). A total of 1 897 pairs of bovine livers and lungs were detected, in which 20 pairs were positive, the prevalence rate was 1.05%. A total of 6 153 pairs of sheep livers and lungs were detected, in which 120 pairs were positive, the prevalence rate was 1.95%. The prevalence rate in cattle decreased from 2.97% (6/202) in 2011 to 0 (0/286) in 2018 (trendχ2=6.178, P<0.05); The prevalence rate in sheep decreased from 4.13% (33/799) in 2011 to 0.28% (7/722) in 2018 (trendχ2=8.612, P<0.05). Conclusion The infection rate in domestic dogs and the prevalence rate in cattle and sheep significantly decreased, resulting in a lower risk of transmission of echinococcosis in human. The prevalence rate in population and the seropositive rate in children significantly decreased, indicating the effect of the project of transitional echinococcosis prevention and control.
Status of influenza vaccination and recommendation intention to others and related factors in healthcare workers in community health service centers in Fengtai district, Beijing
Tian Li, Rui Yang, Zhongfa Tao, Yinan Zhang, Guoqin Zhang, Jing Zhao, Huilai Ma, Lijie Zhang, Zhongzhan Wang, Jian Cai, Luzhao Feng
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Objective To understand the status of influenza vaccination and recommendation intention to others and related factors in healthcare workers in community health service centers in Fengtai district of Beijing, and provide evidence to increase the vaccination rate of influenza in this population. Methods All the healthcare workers of 23 community health service centers in Fengtai district of Beijing were surveyed by using a self-designed questionnaire and an interviews of 23 heads of public health section of community health service centers were conducted to collect the information about the awareness of influenza vaccine related knowledge, status of influenza vaccination during 2018–2019 and recommendation intention to others in health care workers as well as related policies. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the related factors for influenza vaccination and recommendation intention to others. Results A total of 1359 valid questionnaires were returned, with an average response rate of 58.48% (1359/2324). The vaccination rate was adjusted to be 32.81%, and the vaccine recommendation rate was 79.76% (1084/1359). Department of public health, knowing the effectiveness of vaccines, knowing the time of vaccination, and knowing that healthcare workers are the key group to recommend vaccination to others in China, and the free supply of the vaccine were factors that are positively related to influenza vaccination. Older age, being doctor or nurse, history of influenza vaccination, awareness of influenza and influenza vaccine related knowledge were positive factors for influenza vaccine recommendations. In the health care workers interviewed, 78.26% (18/23) believed that the low influenza vaccination rate was due to non-free availability of the vaccine. Up to 91.30% (22/23) suggested to strengthen the health education about influenza and influenza vaccine to increase the vaccination rate. Conclusion The healthcare workers in community health service centers in Fengtai had a low rate of influenza vaccination and a high recommendation rate. Providing free vaccines for medical staff and targeted education are the key measures to increase the influenza vaccination rate in this population.
SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Infection Among Attendees of an Overnight Camp — Georgia, June 2020
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
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Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multistate Health Care Systems Network — United States, March–June 2020
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
Accepted Manuscript
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Legionella and its carriage of virulence genes detected in air condition cooling towers at public places in Quanzhou, Fujian, 2008–2019
Mingchun Chen, Jianzhong Liu, Zhiyang Chen, Xiaoling Chen
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ObjectiveTo understand the contamination of Legionella in air condition cooling towers at public places in Quanzhou, Fujian province, from 2008 to 2019, and identify its carriage of virulence genes and pathogenicity and provide evidence for the prevention and control of Legionellosis.MethodsThe isolation, identification, genotyping and nucleic acid testing of Legionella from water samples collected from the air condition cooling towers at 31 public places in 12 counties of Quanzhou from 2008 to 2019 were conducted. PCR assay was used to detect 7 virulence genes of the isolated strains, including iraAcpxRcpxAdotArpoBicmCicmD.ResultsA total of 569 water samples were collected from the air condition cooling towers during 2008-2019, in which 159 Legionella strains were isolated (27.94%). The majority of the Legionella strains were L. pneumophila (136, 23.90%), and the remaining included L. longbeachae, L. philliflora and L. dumoffii. The serotypes of L. pneumophila were 1, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 10, and serotype 1 was the predominant one (49, 30.82%). The consistent rate of the two methods was 88.40%, but the positive rate of quantitative real-time PCR was significantly higher than that of isolation. The difference was significant (χ2=313.532, P<0.05). All the 136 L. pneumophila strains carried 7 virulence genes, while the virulence genes detection results of 82.61% of the non-L. pneumophila strains were negative.ConclusionSerious contamination of Legionella was found in the air condition cooling towers at public places in Quanzhou, and L. pneumophila was predominant and carried virulence genes. Timely cleaning and disinfection of air condition cooling towers are necessary to prevent the infection of Legionella.
Drug resistance and molecular types of Salmonella Enteritidis in Wuxi, Jiangsu, 2012–2018
Qianqian Qi, Dan Sha, Juan Li, Xiaofei Zhao, Dongyu Zheng, Hongxia Guan
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Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance and pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella Enteritidis strains detected in Wuxi, Jiangsu province, from 2012 to 2018. Methods A total of 110 strains of S. Enteritidis were isolated from diarrhea patients in outpatient departments of food-borne disease surveillance sentinel hospital, people receiving health examinations, food poisoning cases and environmental water samples in Wuxi from 2012 to 2018. Based on BD Phoenix automatic bacterial identification/susceptibility system test program and PulseNet China network laboratory standard method, we analyzed the drug susceptibilities and PFGE patterns of the 110 strains. Results The 110 strains of S. Enteritidis were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, azithromycin and ceftazidime/avibactam, but showed high resistance to nalidixic acid, ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam. Multidrug resistances were observed in 77 strains (70.00%), and the majority of them were resistant to 3 kinds of antibiotics (45.45%, 50/11). The 110 strains were divided into 39 PFGE patterns by Xba I. Each pattern contained 1-31 strains. EN17, EN21 and EN24 were the main PFGE patterns. Conclusion S. Enteritidis strains isolated in Wuxi showed serious drug resistances, and close attention should be paid to its multidrug resistance. The PFGE patterns of the strains showed diversity and predominant patterns existed.
Epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Fengxian district of Shanghai
Bin Hu, Ruiping Li, Caihong Gao, Huitao Li
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Fengxian district of Shanghai from 2005 to 2019, and provide evidence for mumps prevention and control.MethodsThe incidence data of mumps in Fengxian from 2005 to 2019 were collected from national information system of disease prevention and control for a descriptive analysis.ResultsA total of 2900 mumps cases were reported in Fengxian from 2005 to 2019, the average annual incidence rate was 19.31/100 000. The annual case number ranged from 89 (2018) to 438 (2007), and annual incidence rates ranged from 8.26/100 000 (2018) to 54.78/100 000 (2009). The incidence was higher in males than in females. Most cases occurred in age group 5–9 years. The annual incidence peak occurred during April-July. More cases occurred in local population than in floating population, and more cases occurred in people without mumps containing vaccine (MuCV) immunization history or with unknown MuCV immunization history than in those with MuCV immunization history.ConclusionThe overall incidence of mumps decreased in Fengxian from 2005 to 2019, but the incidence in children aged 5–9 years was still high. It is suggested to strengthen mumps surveillance and promote routine immunization in children for the prevention and control of mumps outbreak.
Genetic characteristics of norovirus G.P7-G.6 isolated from acute gastroenteritis cases in Huzhou of Zhejiang, 2013–2019
Lei Ji, Guangtao Liu, Yuehua Shen, Yunfeng Zhu, Deshun Xu
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ObjectiveTo understand the genetic characteristics of norovirus GⅡ isolated from acute gastroenteritis cases in Huzhou in recent years, and provide reference for disease surveillance and prevention.MethodsFluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus nucleic acid in stool samples collected from 4 acute gastroenteritis outbreak in schools and child care settings from 2013 to 2019. RT-PCR was used to amplify the norovirus RNA polymerase and capsid genes of positive samples. The genotype of norovirus was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and online typing tools.ResultsFour outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis occurred in December 2013, April and December 2014, and March 2019, respectively. A total of 28 samples were collected. Among the samples collected from 4 gastroenteritis outbreaks, 5, 4, 2 and 5 samples were positive for nucleic acid of norovirus GⅡ, and 1 strain from the positive samples was sequenced successfully in each outbreak. Online subtyping and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the pathogens of the 4 outbreaks were all recombinant norovirus GⅡ.P7-GⅡ.6, but the evolutionary branches were different. The strains detected in 2013 belonged to GⅡ.P7-GⅡ.6c; the strains detected in 2014 belonged to GⅡ.P7-GⅡ.6b; the strains detected in 2019 belonged to GⅡ.P7-GⅡ.6a.ConclusionRecombinant norovirus GⅡ.P7-GⅡ.6 was the pathogen causing 4 outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in Huzhou from 2013 to 2019, and there were differences in genetic evolutionary branches among the strains isolated in different years. Given the sustainable and wide spread of norovirus GⅡ.P7-GⅡ.6 worldwide, the surveillance for this type of recombinant norovirus should be further strengthened.
Knowledge-attitude-practice survey of coronavirus disease 2019 in workers returning to work in Guangdong
Lei Wang, Xin Peng, Yabin Qu, Ruilin Meng, Min Kang, Xuguang Chen, Fen Yang
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ObjectiveTo understand the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in workers returning to work in Guangdong province and put forward some suggestions for the targeted prevention and control of COVID-19.MethodsAn online questionnaire survey in the occupation population selected through convenient sampling in Guangdong was conducted between 9 and 11, March, 2020. The results were analyzed one by one.ResultsA total of 3 266 valid questionnaires were collected, and the valid response rate was 99.15%. In terms of knowledge, the awareness rates of infection source, transmission route and clinical symptoms of COVID-19 as well as personal protective measures were 81.48%, 69.84%, 37.17% and 97.03%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that the factors influencing awareness of COVID-19 characteristics included concern extent about the epidemic, gender, age, education level, place of domicile, time of returning to work, post of duty, working age. The differences were significant (P<0.05). In terms of attitude, 88.52% of the respondents and their families highly concerned about COVID-19 epidemic, 91.95% of the respondents felt more fear or nervous than usual if fever, cough and other related symptoms occurred, and 94.55% might seek medical care if relevant symptoms occurred. The proportion of the people supporting the isolation of high-risk persons and the current prevention and control actions was 99.51%. In terms of practice, the rate of good behavior of individual was 90.72%. Logistic regression analysis showed that factors influencing personal protection behaviors included concern extent about the epidemic, gender, age and post of duty. Meanwhile, the rate of good behavior of employing unit was 58.42%.ConclusionThe awareness rate of COVID-19 related knowledge needs to be improved in workers returning to work in Guangdong, and the prevention and control measures were not fully implemented in some enterprises. It is suggested that comprehensive health education about COVID-19 needs to be continued in occupation population, and technical guidance for the epidemic prevention and control in enterprises should be carried out.
Epidemiological analysis on imported malaria in Tai'an, 2015–2019
Xinfeng Zhang, Bin Hu, Zhijun Zhang, Yan Xu, Xiangli Kong
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases in Tai'an, Shandong province, from 2015 to 2019 for the prevention and control of malaria.MethodsThe incidence data malaria were collected through the Information Management System for Infectious Diseases Report of China and Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention System, The surveillance and reported data of imported malaria were analyzed statistically.ResultsFrom 2015 to 2019, a total of 122 cases of imported malaria were reported in Tai'an, including 85 cases of falciparum malaria (69.67%, 85/122), 12 cases of vivax malaria (9.84%, 12/122). The disease onset showed no significant seasonal variations. Most imported malaria cases were distributed in age group 40-49 years (45.08%, 55/122). The diagnosis rate on the onset day was 35.25% (43/122). The imported malaria cases were mainly reported in three districts (90.16%, 110/112). The source countries mainly were in Africa and Asia (Pakistan).ConclusionThe imported malaria cases in Tai'an had obvious area, type and source country specific distribution characteristics. Continued efforts are needed to strengthen the surveillance and management of imported malaria cases from some key countries to consolidate the achievement in malaria elimination.
202011FM 目录
2020, 35(11): 0-0.
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2020-11-ml 目录
2020, 35(11): 1-3.
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Epidemic Bulletin
2020年10月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态简介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in October 2020
2020, 35(11): 967-967. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.001
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2020年10月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态概要
2020, 35(11): 968-969. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.002
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Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in October 2020
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Haishan Li, Jiaojiao Jia
2020, 35(11): 970-972. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.003
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In October 2020, a total of 67 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 220 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (219), dengue fever (35), poliomyelitis (14), measles (11) and chikungunya fever (10).The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (42.3%), Rift Valley fever (33.3%), Lassa fever (20.6%), plague (13.7%) and West Nile fever (11.1%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, dengue fever, cholera, measles and West Nile fever. The prevalent infectious diseases were COVID-19 and dengue fever in Asia, COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, cholera, plague, Rift Valley fever, Lassa fever and measles in Africa, COVID-19 and dengue fever in America, and COVID-19 and West Nile fever in Europe.
Risk Assessment
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, November 2020
Ling Meng, Wenxiao Tu, Dayan Wang, Yiran Xie, Zhe Wang, Nijuan Xiang, Guoqing Shi
2020, 35(11): 973-976. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.004
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ObjectiveTo assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in November 2020.MethodsAn internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the incidence data of public health emergencies reported both at home and abroad and the surveillance data of priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this conference through video terminal.ResultsGenerally speaking, it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies would be higher in November than in October. At present, the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still ongoing out of control. The risk of imported or secondary COVID-19 would continue to exist in China, but it would be controllable. The activity of seasonal influenza would increase from late November. In November, the incidence of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning would increase due to coal-firing heating as the approaching of winter.ConclusionSpecial attention should be paid to COVID-19, and general attention should be paid to seasonal influenza and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning.
Surveillance for COVID-19 related epidemics
Spatiotemporal characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in 258 cities in China
Yingying Yang, Siyi Zhan, Qijing Jiang, Chuanxi Fu
2020, 35(11): 977-981. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.005
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ObjectiveTo explore the spatiotemporal characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China and related factors, and provide evidence for COVID-19 prevention and control.MethodsBased on the information about COVID-19 incidence, population migration from Wuhan of Hubei, socio-demography and geography in 258 prefecture-level cities in China from January 21 to March 23, 2020, a spatial autocorrelation analysis and a hot spot analysis were conducted to explore the spatial heterogeneity and identify the hot spots of COVID-19 epidemic. The geographically weighted regression (GWR) model combined with linear regression model was used to identify the related factors for spatial heterogeneity.ResultsDuring January 21 to March 23, 2020, a total of 29 789 COVID-19 cases were reported in 258 cities. The overall incidence of COVID-19 showed spatial clustering (Moran's I=0.436, Z=25.363, P<0.001). The Baidu migration index (from Wuhan) was statistically related to COVID-19 incidence at city level (t=14.550, P<0.001), showing positive effect ( β: 0.564–0.565).ConclusionSpatial heterogeneity was noted in COVID-19 epidemic in China. Cities with more migration from Wuhan were more likely to report higher COVID-19 incidence. Understanding spatiotemporal characteristics of emerging infectious diseases is helpful to the early warning and control of the epidemic.
Temporal risk of coronavirus disease 2019 in Gansu province
Yunhe Zheng, Haixia Liu, Faxiang Gou, Hong Zhang, Xiaoting Yang, Yanjun Tian, Kongfu Wei, Yao Cheng, Xiaojuan Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
2020, 35(11): 982-986. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.006
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ObjectiveTo describe the temporal risk characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Gansu province.MethodsThe information about confirmed COVID-19 cases reported in Gansu as of February 16, 2020 and population data of local counties (districts) were collected to calculate temporal risk of frequency index (α), duration frequency (β) and intensity index (γ) of COVID-19 in Gansu with spatial statistic.ResultsThe Moran's I coefficient of α of COVID-19 in Gansu was 0.115 by global autocorrelation analysis, suggesting that the probability of incidence frequency increase was low. The Moran's I coefficient of γ of COVID-19 in Gansu was 0.070, which showed that the confirmed cases would have no clustering and the epidemic intensity was low. Frequency index (α) and duration frequency (β) had global spatial autocorrelation (P<0.05), while intensity index (γ) had no global spatial autocorrelation (P>0.05). Frequency index (α) showed that there was high-high clustering in local spatial autocorrelation analysis (mainly in Chengguan, Qilihe, Anning, Honggu districts, and Gaolan and Yuzhong counties). There was high-high clustering in Chengguan, Qilihe, Xigu, Anning districts, and Gaolan and Yuzhong countries indicated by duration frequency (β) in local spatial autocorrelation analysis.ConclusionThe majority of counties in Lanzhou showed high risk of clustering of COVID-19, but the intensity was low. The prevention and control measures were timely and effective during COVID-19 epidemic period.
Infectious Disease Surveillance
Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children in Wuhan, Hubei, 2019
Peiqi Huang, Xiaoxia Lu, Hebin Chen, Qing Du, Ying Li, Hui Du, Xiaoli Lei
2020, 35(11): 987-991. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.007
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical characteristics of acute respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children in Wuhan, Hubei province, in 2019.MethodsThe nasopharyngeal swabs of children admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital due to acute respiratory infection in 2019 were collected. RSV positive children were detected by direct immunofluorescence method. Their clinical and epidemiological data were analyzed.ResultsIn 2019, the positive rate of RSV in children with acute respiratory infection in Wuhan was 8.41%. There was a significant difference among children in different age groups, and the detection rate of RSV decreased gradually with age. The detection rate in boys was higher than that in girls (P<0.05). The highest detection rate of RSV was during January, February, December, and the lowest was during May - July. The main clinical manifestations were cough, fever and wheezing. Some children had other complications, such as abnormal liver function, epilepsy, arrhythmia, otitis media and so on. The incidence rate of co-infection of RSV and other respiratory viruses was 2.81%, mainly parainfluenza virus type 3 and adenovirus.ConclusionRSV is a common pathogen of acute respiratory tract infection in children in Wuhan. The infection mainly occurs during December - February. Younger children are more likely to be infected. The co-infection of RSV with parainfluenza virus type 3 and adenovirus is prone to occur.
Epidemiological characteristics of influenza viruses at subtypes/lineages level in Jiangsu, 2011–2019
Junjie Fu, Qigang Dai, Xiang Huo
2020, 35(11): 992-997. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.008
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ObjectiveTo understand the differences in epidemiological characteristics of influenza viruses of different subtypes/lineages in Jiangsu province from 2011 to 2019 and provide evidences for the precise prevention and control of influenza.MethodsLaboratory-confirmed influenza cases reported in influenza surveillance system in Jiangsu from January 2011 to December 2019 were analyzed. The differences in distribution of categorical variable data were compared with χ2 test, the risk factors were identified with Logistic regression analysis and odds ratios were calculated.ResultsThere were 26 934 confirmed influenza cases with subtype/lineage testing results in Jiangsu during this period. Influenza A (H3) virus accounted for the highest proportion (40.40%). The proportion of influenza subtypes/lineages differed significantly with year and area ( χ2=12448.182, P<0.001; χ2=180.333, P<0.001). The seasonal peaks were observed during December-January and August-September for A (H3) virus, during January-February for A(H1) virus and B-Y virus, during March-April for B-V virus. The proportion of influenza subtypes/lineages differed significantly among age groups and occupation groups ( χ2=13588.399, P<0.001; χ2=70.724, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for areas and months, children aged <5 years were more likely to be infected with A(H1) virus. Older children aged 6–15 years had a significantly increased risk for the infection with B-V virus, while the elderly (more than 65 years) were prone to be infected with A (H3) virus and B-Y virus.ConclusionIn Jiangsu, influenza viruses of different subtypes/lineages circulated alternatively, they have different seasonality and infection risks. It is essential to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of influenza viruses at subtypes/lineages level in time for the precise prevention and control of influenza.
Spatiotemporal characteristic of varicella cases reported in Henan, 2014–2019
Daxing Feng, Zhanpei Xiao, Wenhui Wang, Guangwei Li, Yanyang Zhang
2020, 35(11): 998-1002. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.009
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ObjectiveTo analysis the spatiotemporal characteristics of varicella cases reported in Henan province between 2014 and 2019, explore its spatiotemporal clustering areas and provide evidence for the prevention and control of varicella.MethodsThe data of all varicella cases reported in Henan between 2014 and 2019 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention for an epidemiologic analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatiotemporal clustering analysis with software SaTScan and Geoda.ResultsThere were 143 333 varicella cases reported in Henan province between 2014 and 2019, with an average annual incidence of 25.13 per 100 000. Most cases were adolescents. Global spatial autocorrelation showed that all the values of global Moran’s I were positive, i.e. 0.441, 0.392, 0.447, 0.372, 0.335 and 0.163(P<0.001). The areas with high-high clustering were detected in central Henan.ConclusionsThe incidence of varicella case increased with year in Henan from 2014 to 2019, and the cases mainly occurred in central Henan with obvious spatiotemporal clustering characteristics.
Estimating the incidence of the 20182019 influenza season in Beilun district of Ningbo city, Zhejiang
Yi Chen, Wei Ji, Xuying Lao, Qiaofang Li, Haibo Wang, Dongliang Zhang, Keqin Ding, Bo Yi
2020, 35(11): 1003-1007. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.010
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ObjectiveTo estimate the actual case number and incidence rate of influenza in 2018–2019 season in Beilun district of Ningbo and evaluate the actual local incidence level of influenza.MethodsRetrospective analysis was adopted. Based on Ningbo regional health medical big data platform and influenza surveillance network platform and through the big data mining technology, all the records of acute upper respiratory tract infections in the district were obtained, and combined with the influenza nucleic acid positive rate, the case number and incidence rate of influenza in 2018–2019 season in Beilun were estimated.ResultsFrom October 2018 to September 2019, the estimated case number of influenza ranged from 27 683 to 115 123 approximately, and the estimated incidence rate of influenza ranged from 4.14% to 17.23% approximately in Beilun, significantly higher than the reported data. The incidence rate was highest in age group 0–4 years, ranging from 29.28% to 76.81%, and the incidence rate in age group 5–14 years ranged from 17.31% to 46.61%. The estimated case number of influenza was highly consistent with the incidence trend of reported cases with statistical significance (rs1=0.914, rs2=0.923, P<0.001).ConclusionThe local incidence rate of influenza was significantly higher than the reported one. Age groups <15 years and >60 years are key populations in the prevention and control of influenza. It is necessary to expand and increase the coverage of influenza vaccination in these two age groups.
Surveillance for school absence due to influenza like illness in children in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 2018–2020
Muwen Liu, Jing Wang, Xuhui Yang, Shujuan Song
2020, 35(11): 1008-1013. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.011
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the school absence due to influenza like illness (ILI) in children in kindergartens and schools in Hangzhou, analyze the correlation among the number of school absence due to ILI, the number of ILI cases in sentinel surveillance and the number of influenza cases reported in children during same period, and provide evidence for the early warning of influenza epidemic in schools.MethodsSchool absence surveillance data in kindergartens, primary and middle schools in Hangzhou from September 2018 to January 2020 (3 semesters) were used to analyze its correlation with sentinel surveillance data of ILI and reported incidence data of influenza in children with Spearman method.ResultsThe overall school absence due to ILI was 158 171 person-days in Hangzhou, the absence rate was 0.11%. The differences in absence rate among kindergartens, primary schools and middle schools were significant. The sentinel surveillance data of ILI were highly correlated with school absence surveillance data due to ILI in age group 5–14 years, (r=0.558, P<0.001). The number of influenza cases in young children and students was highly correlated with the number of school absence due to ILI, the correlation coefficient was highest at one week ahead (r=0.754, P<0.001).ConclusionChildren in kindergartens and primary schools are at high risk of ILI. School-based ILI surveillance plays an active role in influenza surveillance in kindergartens and schools.
Onychomadesis characteristics in cases of hand foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackie virus A6 in Ninghai county, Zhejiang
Haiyan Qin, Zhifang Kong, Hongxia Ni, Xiaoying Wang, Bin Yang, Dan Zhang, Qinbao Lu
2020, 35(11): 1014-1019. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.012
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiologic characteristics of coxsachie virus A6 (Cox A6)-caused hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases with onychomadesis in Ninghai county of Zhejiang province and provide evidence for the etiologic surveillance, diagnosis/treatment and prevention/control of HFMD.MethodsFrom 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019, the surveillance data of HFMD cases were collected from hospitals in Ninghai. Follow up was conducted for the patients diagnosed with HFMD caused by Cox A6 for 24 consecutive weeks. The fluorescent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for the nucleic acid detection of enterovirus strains isolated. The full length of VP1 amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Cox A6 strains were conducted.ResultsA total of 412 patients with HFMD caused by Cox A6 were surveyed, in which 166 had different degrees of nail shedding, the incidence rate of onychomadesis was 40.29% (166/412), the average number of shed nails was 6.02, the earlier onychomadesis occurred, the more nails shed. The incidence rate was highest in thumbs (toes), followed by index fingers, middle fingers, ring fingers and little fingers ( trend χ2=117.39, P<0.001); The shortest onset time of onychomadesis was on day 7 and the longest was on day 116 after HFMD occurred. About 70% cases developed onychomadesis between day 15 and day 42 (3–6 week) after HFMD occurred. The degree of nail loss varied, and thumbs (toes) were mostly affected, Fingernail shedding mainly occurred in right hands and toenail shedding mainly occurred in right foots. The incidence rate of onychomadesis was higher in fingernails than in toenails ( χ2=103.61, P<0.001), the overall incidence of onychomadesis varied among four limbs(χ2=105.40, P<0.001). Cox A6 positive rate was 91.67% (11/12) in shed nail samples by RT-PCR, but unshed and new nail samples were negative for Cox A6. The gene subtype of D3a.2 clade of the Cox A6 strains isolated from HFMD cases in Ninghai was consistent with the main circulating gene subtype in China.ConclusionThe incidence rate of onychomadesis in Cox A6-caused HFMD cases was 40%, the possible reason might be the direct invasion of Cox A6 virus to nail, but nail can regenerate. The gene subtypes of D3a.2 clad of the Cox A6 strains isolated from HFMD cases with onychomadesis in Ninghai was consistent with the main circulating gene subtype in China.
Early Warning and forecast
Establishment of early warning model of hand, foot and mouth disease based on moving epidemic method in Chongqing
Tian Liu, Qin Li, Li Qi, Bosong Li, Yu Xia, Lin Yang, Han Zhao
2020, 35(11): 1020-1024. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.013
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility of establishing an early warning model of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) based moving epidemic method (MEM) in Chongqing.MethodsThe incidence data of HFMD in Chongqing from the 1st week of 2013 to the 26th week of 2019 were collected from Chinese Infectious Disease Information System. Two peaks of HFMD were found by plotting the epidemic curve of the average incidence of HFMD. The spring-summer MEM model and the autumn-winter MEM model were then established respectively, and the parameters δ of models were screened. The fitting effect of two models were evaluated by using sensitivity, specificity and Yoden index. The models were used to predict the incidence of HFMD in Chongqing in 2018/2019.ResultsThe results showed that the epidemic period in spring and summer lasted from the 13th week 36th weeks in 2019, and the epidemic period in autumn and winter lasted from the 36th week in 2018 to the 2nd week in 2019. The optimal parameter of MEM model during spring-summer was 2.6, the sensitivity, specificity and Yoden index were 0.883, 0.908 and 0.791, respectively. The optimal parameter of MEM model during autumn-winter was 2.4, and the sensitivity, specificity and Yoden index were 0.805, 0.862 and 0.667. Most counties and districts of Chongqing had similar incidence level of HFMD.ConclusionEstablishing MEM models by dividing two incidence peaks of HFMD into single one respectively can accurately identify the epidemic period of HFMD, and the models can be used for the early warning of HFMD in Chongqing.
Technique and Method
Application and evaluation of VITEK-2 Compact and VITEK MS in identification of Morganella morganii
Qinmei Jia, Chuanlian Yang, Yanmei Huang
2020, 35(11): 1025-1030. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.014
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ObjectiveTo analyze the application of VITEK-2 Compact and VITEK MS in the identification of Morganella morganii, evaluate the accuracy of the identification results and provides evidence for clinical precision treatment.MethodsWe collected 50 strains of M. morganii isolated from different types of samples in our hospital from January 2017 to May 2020. The bacterial strains were cultured by conventional methods. Then, VITEK-2 Compact, manual biochemical supplementary test and VITEK MS were used to identify the strains. The strains with different identification results were verified by 16S rDNA sequencing.ResultsThe 50 strains of M. morganii were composed of 5 strains of beta-hemolytic phenotype and 45 strains of non-beta-hemolytic phenotype. VITEK-2 Compact had consistent identification results for non-beta-hemolytic M. morganii, but not for beta-hemolytic M. morganii, which were all identified as Proteus mirabilis, the identification consistent rate was 90%, and manual biochemical supplementary test had same results. The identification results of VITEK MS for non-beta-hemolytic and beta-hemolytic M. morganii were consistent, and the identification consistent rates were 100%. 16S rDNA sequencing verified the five beta-hemolytic strains of M. morganii, which had non-consistent identification results in previous identifications.ConclusionVITEK-2 Compact was accurate and reliable for the identification of non-beta hemolytic M. morganii, but its identifications of beta-hemolytic M. morganii were inaccurate, and the probability of false identification as Proteus mirabilis was very high. The identification result of VITEK MS for M. morganii was accurate and it was not affected by the beta-hemolytic phenotype.
Quality of Reporting of Infectious Disease
Diagnosis and report quality of hepatitis C in three medical institutions in Qingyang city, Gansu
Junlong Meng, Dan Liu, Jincheng Li, Xiaohua Sun, Yongfeng Jing, Liangliang Cui
2020, 35(11): 1031-1035. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.015
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ObjectiveTo understand the difficulties and problems in the quality and management of hepatitis C monitoring reports in Qingyang city.MethodsThrough the Infectious Disease Information System, the data of hepatitis C reported by 3 medical institutions in Qingyang city from 1 Augest 2018 to 31 July 2019 were obtained for on-site quality inspection, and a questionnaire survey was conducted among the relevant staff. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe positive rate of HCV RNA detection in institutions with detection ability was significantly higher than that in other two institutions (89.51%)( χ2=176.870, P<0.01). The rate of missed report was 36.91%, and the rate of missed report in outpatient cases (89.96%) was higher than that in inpatient cases (48.54%) (χ2=123.799, P<0.01). The correct rate of diagnosis and classification was 69.44%, and the correct rate of staging was 66.67%. The awareness rate of knowledge about hepatitis C was 53.81%.ConclusionIt's necessary to improve the ability of nucleic acid detection in the laboratory of medical institutions in order to reduce the rate of missed reports of hepatitis C cases, and to improve the rate of correct diagnosis.
Drug Resistant Surveillance
Drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Wenling, Zhejiang, 2009–2019
Guoping Wang, Zhongchen Zhang, Lingxiao Jin, Wenjun Jiang, Jianzhong Zhang
2020, 35(11): 1036-1041. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.016
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ObjectiveTo analyze the drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)in different age groups in Wenling, Zhejiang province, from 2009 to 2019, and provide reference for individualized treatment of H. pylori infection.MethodsThe gastric mucosal samples of patients undergoing gastroscopy from 2009 to 2019 were collected, H. pylori strains were isolated, and the strains’ drug resistances to amoxicillin, levofloxacin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were detected. The antibiotic resistance rates and trends of H. pylori in different age groups divided by 10 years old were analyzed.ResultsA total of 95 448 gastric mucosal samples from patients undergoing gastroscopy were collected, in which 28 774 H. pylori strains were isolated. The average resistance rates of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole in Wenling were 0.37%, 23.52%, 30.62% and 3.61%, respectively. The resistance rates to clarithromycin and levofloxacin increased with age. The resistance rate to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin in people aged <20 years increased faster compared with other age groups.ConclusionThe antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in Wenling was relatively serious, and the resistance rates in young and old age groups increased significantly, indicating that special attention should be paid to it.
Vaccination
Coverage rate of influenza vaccination in the elderly in Taizhou, Zhejiang
Lingchu Liu, Yan Jin, Fang Xu, Liangyou Wang, Lianhua Wang, Yiping Chen, Yiwen Xu, Wenjie Chai, Chunhua Qiu
2020, 35(11): 1042-1046. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.017
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ObjectiveTo understand the coverage rate of influenza vaccination in people aged ≥60 years in Taizhou, Zhejiang.MethodsAll the elderly aged ≥60 years in Taizhou were the study subjects. The basic data of all the elder people aged ≥60 years were obtained through immunization program information system of Zhejiang province and chronic disease information system of Taizhou.ResultsThe coverage rate of influenza vaccination was 42.36% (473 456/1 117 667) in the elderly aged ≥60 years in Taizhou in 2018. There were significant differences in the coverage rate among different age groups ( χ2=23 561.103, P<0.001) and the coverage rate decreased with the age ( χ2=23 326.480, P<0.001). The coverage rate of influenza vaccination in women was higher than that in men ( χ2=1 041.805, P<0.001). The area distribution showed the coverage rate of influenza vaccination in urban areas (Jiaojiang, Huangyan and Luqiao) was higher than that in Sanmen, Tiantai and Xianju counties, and the coverage rate in Linhai, Wenling and Yuhuan counties was lowest (P<0.001). The continuous vaccination rate was 71.37% (30 794/43 148) in Jiaojiang district between 2017 and 2018. The coverage rates of influenza vaccination in the elderly with coronary heart disease or stroke were 59.98% and 87.30%, which were higher than overall coverage rate (42.36%). The coverage rates of influenza vaccination for the elderly with malignant tumor or diabetes were 41.66% and 28.70%, which were lower than the overall coverage rate (P<0.001). The coverage rate of influenza vaccination in the elderly with coronary heart disease or stroke was higher than that in the elderly without coronary heart disease or stroke, whereas the coverage rate of influenza vaccination in the elderly with diabetes or malignant tumor was lower than that in the elderly without diabetes or malignant tumor, and the difference was significant (P<0.001).ConclusionThe coverage rate of influenza vaccination in the elderly in Taizhou differed with population. Further study on influencing factors should be carried out for the improvement of influenza vaccination in the elderly.
Review
Progress in research of molecular detection of pathogens in bloodstream infection
Hao Zheng, Xiaoping Chen, Jinxing Lu
2020, 35(11): 1047-1054. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.018
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The incidence rate of bloodstream infection (BSI) continues to increase around the world. The early identification and diagnosis of BSI has a great significance for clinical therapy. There are two kinds of molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of BSI: blood culture dependent detection and whole blood detection. Compared with the blood culture, whole blood detection can shorten the time needed and identify the pathogens which are difficult to culture, but the sensitivity needs to be improved. This paper summarizes the progress in the molecular detection of pathogens in bloodstream infection.
Overseas Dynamic
Continuation of Mosquito Surveillance and Control During Public Health Emergencies and Natural Disasters
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
2020, 35(11): 1055-1056. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.019
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Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of Congo, Update 26 June, 2020
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
2020, 35(11): 1057-1058. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.11.020
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